A treatise on the Interpretation of the Old and New Testament
ISBN: 1-57910-225-5


    THE first edition of this work was published in the autumn of 1883, and has received such cordial and continued welcome as to put beyond doubt that a treatise of its character is needed in our English theological literature. The general plan of the volume has been adapted to meet what appear to be the practical wants of most theological students. Specialists and experts in exegetical learning will push their way through all difficulties, and find delight in testing principles; but the ordinary student, if led at all into continued and successful searching of the Scriptures, must become interested in the practical work of exposition. The bare enunciation of principles, with brief references to texts in which they are exemplified, is too dry and taxing to the mind to develop a taste for exegetical study; it has a tendency rather to repel. Our plan is rather to familiarize the student with correct methods by means of continuous exercise in the actual work of exegesis. The statement of principles is introduced gradually, and abundantly illustrated and verified by a faithful application of them to such portions of the Holy Scriptures as are known to have peculiar difficulties, or to be of special interest and value. It is not expected that all our interpretations will command unqualified approval, but it is confidently believed that a selection of the more difficult Scriptures for examples of exposition will enhance the real value of the work, and save it from the danger, too often common in such treatises, of running into lifeless platitudes. With ample illustrations of’ this kind before him, the student comes by a natural inductive process to grasp hermeneutical principles, and learns by example and practice rather than by abstract precept.

    The larger portion of the volume is devoted to Special Hermeneutics. This fact will, we believe, meet the approval of all biblical scholars. They will acknowledge the propriety of passing more rapidly over those general principles, on which there exists little or no difference, of opinion, and of allowing greater space for the treatment of parables, allegories, types, symbols, and apocalyptic prophecy. The necessity of sound principles is most deeply felt in the study of these enigmatical, portions of the Bible. Our constant aim has been to abstain from all appearance of dogmatism, and to adhere strictly to the method of scientific and conscientious inquiry. If Special Hermeneutics serves any useful end, it must cultivate the habit of searching for what the Scripture has to say for itself, not of imposing upon its language the burden of whatever it is able to bear.

    Considerable space has been given to the subject of prophetic symbolism. The apocalyptic books have ever been regarded as most difficult to explain, but not a few of the difficulties have grown out of the extravagant notion that we may expect to find in prophecy a detailed history of events from the advent of Christ to the end of time. We have tried to show that the biblical symbols and apocalypses are largely self-interpreting, and, if allowed to speak for themselves, are not more difficult of exposition than the parables of Jesus.

    Profoundly grateful for the generous commendation of the former editions, and profiting by the friendly criticism of numerous reviews, the author has spared no pains to make this new edition more worthy of general favor. The revision has extended to nearly every page, and considerable portions have been rewritten. A number of chapters, not strictly belonging to Hermeneutics, have been omitted, and others have been condensed, so that the substance of the original work of 782 pages now appears in a more convenient, and, we trust, not less valuable, volume.

    EVANSTON, May 15, 1890.





  1. Preliminary
  2. Qualifications of an Interpreter
  3. Historical Sketch
  4. Methods of Interpretation



  1. Preliminary
  2. The Primary Meaning of Words
  3. The Usus Loquendi
  4. Synonymes
  5. The Grammatico-Historical Sense
  6. Context, Scope, and Plan
  7. Comparison of Parallel Passages
  8. The Historical Standpoint












  1. Preliminary
  2. Hebrew Poetry
  3. Figurative Language
  4. Simile and Metaphor
  5. Fables, Riddles, and Enigmas
  6. Interpretation of Parables
  7. Interpretation of Allegories
  8. Proverbs and Gnomic Poetry
  9. Interpretation of Types
  10. Interpretation of Symbols
  11. Symbolico-Typical Actions
  12. Symbolical Numbers, Names, and Colors
  13. Dreams and Prophetic Ecstasy
  14. Prophecy and its Interpretation
  15. Messianic Prophecy
  16. Old Testament Apocalyptics
  17. The Apocalypse of John
  18. No Double Sense in Prophecy
  19. Scripture Quotations in the Scripture
  20. The False and the True Accommodation
  21. Alleged Discrepancies of the Scriptures
  22. Harmony and Diversity of the Gospels
  23. Progress of Doctrine and Analogy of Faith
  24. Doctrinal and Practical Use of Scripture





  1. Hermeneutics defined
  2. General and Special Hermeneutics
  3. Biblical or Sacred Hermeneutics
  4. Old and New Testament Hermeneutics should not be separated
  5. Hermeneutics distinguished from Introduction, Criticism, and Exegesis
  6. Hermeneutics both a science and an art
  7. Necessity of Hermeneutics
  8. Rank and importance of Hermeneutics in Theological Science

Qualifications of an Interpreter

    1. A sound, well-balanced mind
    2. Quick and clear perception
    3. Acuteness of intellect (Bengel and De Wette)
    4. Imagination allowed but controlled
    5. Sober judgment
    6. Correctness and delicacy of taste
    7. Right use of reason
    8. Aptness to teach
    1. Knowledge of geography and history
    2. Knowledge of chronology and antiquities
    3. Study of politics, law, and civil government
    4. Knowledge of natural science
    5. Speculative philosophy and psychology
    6. Knowledge of biblical languages and of comparative philology
    7. Acquaintance with general literature
    1. These partly a gift, partly acquired
    2. Desire to know the truth
    3. Deep and tender affection
    4. Enthusiasm for the Word of God
    5. Reverence for God and his laws
    6. Communion with the Holy Spirit

Historical Sketch

  1. Value and importance of the history of interpretation
  2. Origin and variety of interpretations
  3. Ezra the scribe
  4. Public instruction in the-law
  5. Office and work of the scribes
  6. Progress of Jewish exegesis after Ezra
  1. Halachah and Hagadah
  2. The Karaites
  3. Methods of New Testament exegesis
  4. Allegorizing tendency of post-apostolic time
  5. School of Alexandria
  6. School of Antioch
  7. Theodore of Mopsuestia
  8. John Chrysostom
  9. Theodoret
  10. Schools of Edessa and Nisibis
  11. Ephraim Syrus
  12. Barsumas and Ibas
  13. Hippolytus
  14. Jerome
  15. Augustine
  16. The Catenists
  17. Nicholas de Lyra
  18. John Reuchlin
  19. Erasmus
  20. Luther and the Reformation
  21. Melanchthon
  22. John Calvin
  23. Theodore Beza
  24. Tendencies of Lutheran and Reformed parties
  25. Polyglots and Critici Sacri
  26. Grotius
  27. Voetius
  28. Cocceius
  29. Spener and Franke
  30. Ernesti
  31. German rationalism
  32. Mediation school
  33. Evangelical school
  34. Biblical exegesis in America
  35. Modern exeges

Methods of Interpretation

  1. Halachic and Hagadlemethods
  2. Allegorical interpretation (Philo, Clement)
  3. Mystical interpretation (Origen, Maurus, Swedenborg)
  4. Pietistic interpretation (Quakers)
  5. The accommodation theory (Semler)
  6. Moral interpretation (Kant)
  7. Naturalistic interpretation (Paulus)
  8. The mythical theory (Strauss)
  9. Other rationalistic theories (Baur, Renan)
  10. Exegesis controlled by speculative philosophy (Reuss)
  11. Apologetic and dogmatic methods
  12. Grammatico-historical interpretation





  1. General principles defined
  2. The Bible to be interpreted like other books
  3. Importance of general principles
  4. Ennobling tendency of hermeneutical adjuncts

The Primary Meaning of Words

  1. Words the elements of language
  2. Value and pleasure of etymological studies

(1) Illustrated by the word ekklhsia
(2) Illustrated by dpp

  1. Value of comparative philology
  2. Rare words and apax legomena

(1) Illustrated by the word epwuswv
(2) Illustrated by the word pionsiov

  1. Study of compound words

The Usus Loquendi

  1. How the meaning of words becomes changed
  2. Importance of attending to the usus loquendi
  1. Means of ascertaining the usus loquendi: —

(1) By the writer’s own definitions
(2) By the immediate context
(3) By the nature of the subject
(4) By antithesis or contrast
(5) By Hebrew parallelisms
(6) By relations of subject, predicate, and adjuncts
(7) By comparison of parallel passages
(8) By common and familiar usage
(9) By help of ancient versions
(10) By ancient glossaries and scholia


  1. Some words have many meanings
  2. Many different words have like meaning
  3. Seven Hebrew words for putting to death
  4. Twelve Hebrew words for sin or evil
  5. Divine names in Hebrew Scriptures
  6. Synonymes of the New Testament: —

(1) Kainov and neov
(2) Biov and zwh
(3) Agapaw and filew
(4) Oida and ginwskw
(5) Arnia, probata, and probatia
(6) Boskw and poimainw

The Grammatico-Historical Sense
  1. Grammatico-historical sense defined
  2. Observation of Davidson
  3. Same methods required as in ascertaining meaning and usage of words
  4. Words and sentences can have but one meaning in the same place and connection
  5. Narratives of miracles to be explained literally
  6. Jephthah’s daughter a burnt offering
  7. Jesus’ resurrection an historical fact
  8. Grammatical ‘accuracy of the New Testament
  9. Significance of Greek tenses
  10. Importance of careful critical study

Context, Scope, and Plan

  1. Context, scope, and plan defined
  2. Scope sometimes formally announced
  3. Plan and scope of Genesis seen in a study of its contents and structure
  4. Plan and scope of Exodus
  5. Subject and plan of the Epistle to the Romans
  6. Context, near and remote

(1) Illustrated by Isaiah
(2) Illustrated by Matt. 11:12
(3) Illustrated by Gal. 5:4

  1. Historical, dogmatic, logical, and psy­chological connection
  2. Importance of studying context, scope, and plan
  3. Need of critical tact, and ability

Comparison of Parallel Passages

  1. Some parts of Scripture without. logical connection
  2. Value of parallel passages
  3. The Bible a self-interpreting book
  4. Parallels verbal and real
  5. Parallels must have real correspondency
  6. The word hate in Luke 14:26 explained by parallel passages
  7. Jesus’ words to Peter in Matt. 15:18 explained by parallel texts
  8. Many parts of Scripture parallel

The Historical Standpoint

  1. Importance of knowing the historical standpoint of’ a writer
  2. Historical and geographical knowledge essential
  3. Difficulty of transferring one’s self into a remote age
  4. Personal sanctity of ancient worthies sometimes unduly exalted
  5. Historical occasions of the Psalms
  6. Places as well as times to be studied: —

(1) Shown by journeys and epistles of Paul
(2) Historical and geographical accuracy of Scripture proven by modern research

  1. Historical standpoint of John’s Apocalypse: —

(1) The external evidence
(2) John’s own testimony
(3) Internal evidence; six points
(4) Great delicacy of discrimination, necessary




  1. Special qualities of’ the Bible
  2. A text-book of religion
  3. Variety of subject matter and style
  4. Distinction between substance and form
  5. Special Hermeneutics calls for larger space
  6. The Bible its own best interpreter

Hebrew Poetry

  1. Old Testament largely poetical
  2. Parallelism the distinguishing feature
  3. The speeches of Laban and Jacob
  4. Form essential to poetry
  5. Hebrew spirit and form may be largely preserved in translation
  6. Structure of Hebrew parallelism
  7. Synonymous parallelism: —
    1. Identical
    2. Similar
    3. Inverted
  8. Antithetic parallelism: —
    1. Simple
    2. Compound
  9. Synthetic parallelism: —
    1. Correspondent
    2. Cumulative
  10. Irregular structure of impassioned utterances
  11. Alphabetical poems and rhymes
  12. Vividness of Hebrew expression
  13. Force of ellipsis
  14. Special Hermeneutics must recognize rhetorical form and figures of speech

Figurative Language

  1. Tropes many and various
  2. Origin and necessity of figurative language
  3. Sources of scriptural imagery
  4. Specific rules for determining when language is figurative, impractica4 and unnecessary
  5. Figures of words and figures of thought
  6. Metonymy

(1) Of cause and effect
(2) Of subject and adjunct
(3) Of sign and thing signified

  1. Synecdoche
  1. Personification
  2. Apostrophe
  3. Interrogation
  4. Hyperbole
  5. Irony

Simile and Metaphor

  1. SIMILE: —
    1. Definition and illustration
    2. Crowding of similes together
    3. Similes are naturally self-interpret­ing
    4. Pleasure afforded by similes
    5. Assumed comparisons, or illustra­tions
  2. METAPHOR: —
    1. Definition and illustration
    2. Sources of Scripture metaphors

(1) Natural scenery
(2) Ancient customs
(3) Habits of animals
(4) Hebrew ceremonies

  1. Elaborated and mixed metaphors
  2. Uncertain metaphorical allusions: —

(1) ­Loosing of locks, in Judges 5:2
(2) Boiling of heart (Psalm 14:1)
(3) Buried in baptism (Rom. 6:4; Col. 2:12)

Fables, Riddles, and Enigmas

  1. More notable figures of Scripture
  2. Characteristics of the fable

(1) Jotham’s fable
(2) Jehomh’s fable

  1. Characteristics of the riddle

(1) Samson’s riddle
(2) Number of the beast
(3) Obscure proverbs
(4) Lamech’s song

  1. Enigma distinguished and defined

(1) Enigmatical element in Jesus’ discourse with Nicodemus
(2) In his discourse with the woman of Sa­maria
(3) Enigma of the sword in Luke 22:33
(4) Enigmatical language addressed to Peter in John 21:18
(5) Figure of the two eagles in Ezek. 17

Interpretation of Parables

  1. Pre-eminence of parabolic teaching
  2. Parable defined
  3. General use of parables
  4. Special purpose and reason of Jesus’ parables
  5. Parables a test of character
  6. Superior beauty of the parables of Scripture
  7. Three essential elements of a parable
  8. Three principal rules for the interpre­tation of parables
  9. Principles illustrated in parable of the sower
  10. Parable of the tares and its interpre­tation

(1) Things explained and things unnoticed in medal expositions of Jesus
(2) We may notice some things which Jesus did not emphasize
(3) Suggestive words and allusions deserve comment
(4) Not specific rules, but sound and discrim­inating judgement, must guide the in­terpreter

  1. Isaiah’s parable of the vineyard
  2. Parable of the wicked husbandmen
  3. Comparison of analogous parables: —

(1) Marriage of King’s Son, and wicked hus­band men
(2) Marriage of king’s son, and great supper

  1. Old Testament parables
  2. All Jesus’ parables in the Synoptic Gospels
  3. Parable of the laborers in the vine­yard: —

(1) Mistakes of interpreters
(2) Occasion and scope
(3) Prominent points In the parable
(4) Primarily an admonition to the disciples

  1. Parable of the unjust steward: —

(1) Occasion and aim
(2) Unauthorized additions
(3) Jesus’ own application
(4) The rich man Mammon
(5) Geikie’s Comment

Interpretation of Allegories

  1. Allegory distinguished from parable
  2. Allegory a continued metaphor
  3. Same hermeneutical principles as ap­ply to parables
  4. Allegory of old age in Eccles. 12:3-7: —
(1) Various Interpretations
(2) Old age of a sensualist
(3) Uncertain allusions
(4) Blending of meaning and imagery
(5) Hermeneutical principles Involved

  1. Allegory of false prophets in Ezek. 13:10-15
  2. Allegory of wise and unwise building in 1st Cor. 3:10-15: —

(1) Are the materials persons or doctrines?
(2) Both views allowable
(3) The passage paraphrased
(4) A warning rather than a prophecy

  1. Allegory of the leaven in 1st Cor. 5:6-8: —

(1) The context
(2) The passage paraphrased
(3) Study of the more important allusions,

  1. Allegory of the Christian armor
  2. Allegory of the door and the shepherd: —

(1) Occasion and scope
(2) Import of particular parts
(3) Jesus’ explanation enigmatical

  1. Paul’s allegory of the covenants:-

(1) It Is peculiar and exceptional
(2) The historical allusions accepted as true
(3) The correspondent clauses
(4) Paul’s example as an allegorist
(5) Such methods to be sparingly employed

  1. Interpretation of Canticles: —

(1) The allegorical method
(2) Objections to this method
(3) Canticles a dramatic parable
(4) Literal basis under oriental poetry
(5) Details not to be pressed into mystical significance

Proverbs and Gnomic Poetry

  1. Proverbs defined and described
  2. Their use among most nations
  3. Hermeneutical principles to be ob­served: —

(1) Discrimination of form and figure
(2) Critical and practical sagacity
(3) Attention to context and Parallelism
(4) Common sense and sound judgment

Interpretation of Types

  1. Types and symbols defined and dis­tinguished
  2. Examples of types and symbols
  3. Analogy with several figures of speech
  4. Principal distinction between types and symbols
  5. Essential characteristics of the type: —

(1) Notable points of resemblance between type and antitype
(2) Must be divinely appointed
(3) Must prefigure something future

  1. Five classes of Old Testament types: —

(1) Typical persons
(2) Typical institutions
(3) Typical offices
(4) Typical events
(5) Typical actions

  1. Hermeneutical principles to be observed: —

(1) All real correspondences to be noted

  1. The brazen serpent
  2. Melchizedek and Christ

(2) Notable differences and contrasts to be Observed

  1. Moses and Christ
  2. Adam and Christ

(3) Old Testament types apprehended only by the Gospel revelation

  1. Limitation of types: —

(1) Statement of Marsh
(2) Too restrictive a rule
(3) A broader principle allowable
(4) Qualifying observation






Interpretation of Symbols

  1. Difficulties of the Subject
  2. Principles of procedure
  3. Classification of symbols
  4. Examples of visional symbols:—

(1) The almond rod (Jer. 1:11)
(2) The seething pot (Jer. 1:13)
(3) The good and bad figs (Jer. 24)
(4) The summer fruit (Amos 8:1)
(5) Resurrection of bones (Ezek. 37)
(6) Golden candlestick
(7) The two olive trees (Zech. 4)
(8) linage of Nebuchadnezzar’s dream (Dan. 2)
(9) The four beasts of Dan. 7
(10) Riders, horns, and smiths (Zech, 1)
(11) Flying roll and ephah (Zeeb. 5).
(12) The four chariots (Zech. 6)

  1. These examples, largely explained by the sacred writers, authorize three fundamental principles: —

(1) The names of symbols are to be literally understood
(2) Symbols always represent something dif­ferent from themselves
(3) A resemblance is always traceable between the symbol and the thing symbolized, 266.

  1. No minute set of rules practicable
  2. Fairbairn’s statement of principles
  3. Some principles apply to material symbols
  4. Symbolism of blood
  5. Symbolism of the Mosaic tabernacle: —

(1) Import of the names employed
(2) A divine-human relationship symbolizes
(3) The most holy place and its symbols: —

  1. The ark
  2. The capporeth, or mercyseat
  3. The cherubim

(4) The holy place and its symbols: —

  1. The table of showbread
  2. The golden candlestick
  3. The altar of Incense

(5) Great altar and laver in the court
(6) The graduated sanctity of the holy places
(7) Symbolico-typical action of the high priest on the day of atonement


Symbolico-Typical Actions

  1. Actions performed in vision
  2. Symbolico-typical acts of Ezek. 4 and 5: —

(1) The acts outward and real
(2) Five objections considered

  1. Other symbolical acts
  2. Hosea’s marriage: —

(1) The language implies a real event
(2) Supposed impossibility based on Misap­prehension
(3) Gomer and Diblaim not symbolical names
(4) Hengstenberg’s unwarrantable assertion
(5) The facts as stated perfectly supposable
(6) Scope of the passage indicated
(7) The symbolical names (Jezreel, Lo-ruha­mah, and Lo-ammi)
(8) The marriage of Hos. 3 to be similarly explained

  1. Our Lord’s miracles have symbolical import

Symbolical Numbers, Names, and Colors
Process of ascertaining symbolism of
numbers, names, and colors

    1. The numbers one and three
    2. The number four
    3. The number seven
    4. The number ten
    5. The number twelve
    6. Synbolical does not always exclude significance
    7. Time, times, and half a time
    8. Forty-two months
    9. The number forty
    10. The number seventy
    11. Prophetical designations of time
    12. The year-day theory:—

(1) Has no support in Num. x1v and Ezek. 4
(2) Not sustained by prophetic analogy
(3) Daniel’s seventy weeks not parallel
(4) Days nowhere means years
(5) The theory disproved by repeated failures

  1. The thousand years of Rev. 20
    1. Sodom and Egypt
    2. Babylon and Jerusalem
    3. Returning to Egypt
    4. David and Elijah
    5. Ariel
    6. Leviathan
    1. Rainbow and tabernacle colors
    2. Import and association of blue
    3. Purple and scarlet
    4. White a symbol of purity
    5. Black and red
    6. Symbolical import of metals and jewels
Dreams and Prophetic Ecstasy

  1. Methods of divine revelation
  2. Dreams recorded in the. Scripture
  3. Evince latent powers of the soul
  4. Jacob’s dream at Bethel
  5. Interpretation of dreams
  6. Repetition of dreams and visions
  7. Prophetic ecstasy: —

(1) David’s Messianic revelation
(2) Ezekiel’s visional rapture
(3) Other examples of ecstasy
(4) The prophet personating God

  1. New Testament glossolaly, or speaking with tongues: —

(1) The facts as recorded
(2) The miracle of Pentecost symbolical
(3) A mysterious exhibition of soul-powers

Prophecy and its Interpretation

  1. Magnitude and scope of Scripture prophecy
  2. Not prediction merely, but utterance of God’s truth
  3. Prophecies of the future require special hermeneutics
  4. History and prediction not to be confused
    1. Progressive character of Messianic prophecy
    2. Repetition of oracles against heathen nations
    3. Daniel’s two great prophecies (chapters 2 and 7) compared
    4. The little horn of Dan. vii, 8, and viii, 9 the same king seen from different points of view
    5. Other prophetic repetitions
    1. Imagery the most natural form for expressing revelations obtained by dreams and visions
    2. Poetic form and style of several prophecies adduced
    3. Prominence of symbols in the apocalyptic books
    4. The hermeneutical principles to be observed: —

(1) Clear discrimination of symbols
(2) Their most striking aspects to be noted
(3) Ample and self-consistent compari­son

    1. Verbal analogies
    2. Twofold presentation of prophetic revelations
    3. Analogies of imagery
    4. Similar imagery applied to different subjects
    5. General summary


Messianic Prophecy

  1. Messianic prophecy defined
  2. To be studied on its divine and human sides
  3. Two schools of extremists to be dis. Carded
  4. Five Messianic prophecies adduced for illustration
    1. Translation
    2. Absurdity of a literal interpretation
    3. The four essential prophetic thoughts
  2. THE BRANCH OF JEHOVAH (Isa. 4:2-6): —
    1. Translation
    2. Two possible interpretations
    3. The four essential prophetic thoughts
  3. IMMANUEL (Isa. 7:14-16): —
    1. Tile prophecy difficult and enig­matical
    2. Translation
    3. The various expositions
    4. The most simple explanation identifies the virgin with the prophet’s wife, and the child Immanuel with the Maher-shalala-bash-baz of chapter 8:1-3
  4. THE GALILEAN KING (Isa. 9:1-7): —
    1. Translation
    2. The essential prophetic thoughts
    1. Ten notable Messianic ideals
  1. Messianic prophecy an organic series
  2. Prompted by the times in which the prophet lived.
  3. Cast in metaphorical forms
  4. Not to be literally interpreted

Old Testament Apocalyptics

  1. Apocalyptics defined
  2. Distinguished from prophecy
  3. Scope of biblical apocalyptics
  4. Formal elements of apocalyptics
  5. Hermeneutical principles to be observed
    1. Analysis of Joel’s prophecy
    2. First Part: Jehovah’s judgments,
    3. Second Part: Jehovah’s triumph and glory
    4. Joel’s prophecy a generic apocalypse
    1. Peculiarities of Ezekiel
    2. Analysis of EzekiLl’s prophecies
    3. The vision of new temple, land, and city
    4. The three different interpretations
    1. Principles illustrated by Daniel’s double revelation of empires
    2. Three current errors touching the exposition of Daniel
    3. All dogmatism and a prio7i as­sumptions fatal to sound interpre­tation
    4. Three prevalent interpretations
    5. Arguments in favor of Roman theory: —(1) Importance of Rome
      (2) Iron strength and violence of Rome
      (3) Set up in “days of those kings
      (4) Unsatisfactory character of the arguments
    6. Daniel’s historical standpoint
    7. Prominence of the Medes in Scripture
    8. The varied but parallel descriptions
    9. The prophet should- be allowed to explain himself
    10. The prophet’s point of view in chapter 8
    11. Inner harmony of all the visions to be sought
    12. Alexander and his successors not viewed as two different world­-powers
    13. Conclusion: Daniel recognized a Median dominion as succeeding the Chaldean
    14. Prophecy of the seventy weeks
    15. Revelation of Dan. 11:2—12:3

The Apocalypse of John

  1. Systems of interpretation
  2. Historical standpoint of the writer
  3. Plan of the Apocalypse
  4. Artificial form of the Apocalypse
  5. The great theme announced
    1. In the epistles to the seven Churches
    2. By the opening of the seven seals
    3. By the sounding of the seven trump­ets

(1) The plague from the abyss
(2) The armies of the Euphrates
(3) The mighty angel arrayed with cloud and rainbow
(4) The last trumpet

    1. Vision of the woman and the dragon
    2. Vision of the two beasts
    3. Vision of Mount Zion
    4. Vision of the seven last plagues
    5. Vision of the mystic Babylon

(1) Mystery of the woman and beast
(2) The beast from the abyss
(3) Fall of the mystic Babylon

6. Vision of parousia, millennium, and judgment: —

(1) It is a sevenfold vision
(2) The millennium Is the gospel period
(3) The chiliastic interpretation without sufficient warrant
(4) The last judgment
(5) Visions transcending time-limit of the book
(6) Millennium of chapter 20 now In progress

7. Vision of the New Jerusalem: —

(1) Meaning of the vision; three views
(2) Comparison of Hag. 2:6, 7 and Heb. 12:26-28
(3) Allusion of Heb. 12:22, 23
(4) New Jerusalem a heavenly picture of what the tabernacle symbolized

Conclusions touching biblical apocalyptics

No Double Sense in Prophecy

  1. Theory of double sense unsettles all sound interpretation
  2. Typology and double sense not to be confounded
  3. Suggestive fullness of prophetic Scrip­ture no proof of double sense
  4. No misleading designations of time in prophecy
  5. Misuse of the phrase “a thousand years as one day,”
  6. Bengel’s fallacious treatment of Matt. 24
  7. Practical applications of prophecy may be many
  8. False prophetic interpretation some­times due to mistaken notions of the Bible itself

Scripture Quotations in the Scripture

  1. Four classes of quotations:

(1) Old Testament quotations in Old Testa­ment, ago
(2) New Testament quotations from Old Testament
(3) New Testament quotations from Now Testament sources
(4) Quotations from apocryphal sources

  1. Only Old Testament quotations in the New Testament call for special her­meneutical study
    1. Septuagint version the principal source
    2. No uniform manner of quotation
    3. Currency of inaccurate quotation
    1. The verbal formulas employed
    2. Appropriation of sentiment without formal quotation
    3. Furnish no law of general herme­neutics
    4. Not necessarily decisive Of questions of literary criticism
    5. The formula ina plhrwsh: —

(1) Peculiar to Matthew and John
(2) Views of Bengel and Meyer
(3) The telic force of ina generally to be maintained
(4) The ecbatle sense need not In all cases be. Denied
(5) The telic sense in formulas of prophetic citation
(6) Hosea 11:1, as cited In Matt. 2:15

    1. For showing its fulfillment
    2. For establishing doctrine
    3. For confuting opponents
    4. For authority, rhetorical purposes, and illustration

The False and the True Accommodation

  1. The rationalistic theory
  2. Such a theory to be repudiated
  3. The true idea of accommodation
  4. Illustrated by Matthew’s citation of Jer. 31:15




Alleged Discrepancies of the Scriptures

  1. General character of the discrepancies
  2. Causes of discrepancies: —

(1) Errors of copyists
(2) Various names of one person
(3) Different methods of reckoning time
(4) Different point of view and aim

  1. Discrepancies in genealogical tables: —

(1) Jacob’s family record

  1. The different lists compared
  2. The historical standpoint of each list
  3. Hebrew style and usage
  4. Substitution of names
  5. Desire to have a definite and suggest­ive number

(2) The two genealogies of Jesus: —

  1. Different hypotheses
  2. Views of Jerome and Africanus
  3. No hypothesis can claim absolute certainty
  4. Hervey’s theory
  1. Genealogies not useless Scripture
  2. Numerical discrepancies
  3. Doctrinal and ethical discrepancies: —

(1) Supposed conflict between Law and Gos­pel
(2) Civil rights maintained by Jesus and Paul
(3) Avenging of blood
(4) Difference between Paul and James on Justification: —

  1. Different personal experience
  2. Different modes of apprehending and expressing great truths
  3. Different aim of each writer
  4. Individual freedom of each writer
  1. Value of biblical discrepancies: —

(1) To stimulate mental effort
(2) To illustrate harmony of Bible and nature
(3) To prove absence of collusion
(4) To show the spirit above the letter
(5) To serve as a test of moral character

Harmony and Diversity of the Gospels

  1. The life of Jesus a turning-point in the history of the world
  2. The Gospels a chief ground of conflict between faith and unbelief
  3. Attempts at constructing Gospel Harmonies
  4. Use Of Such harmonies
    1. An original oral Gospel
    2. No absolute certainty as to the par­ticular origin of each Gospel
    3. Probable suppositions
    1. Tradition of the early Church
    2. Matthew’s Gospel adapted to Jewish. Readers
    3. Mark’s Gospel adapted to Roman taste
    4. Luke’s the Pauline Gospel to the Gentiles
    5. John’s the spiritual Gospel of the Christian life
    1. Noticeable characteristics of Mat­thew’s Gospel
    2. Omissions of earlier Gospels may have had a purpose
    3. Harmony of the Gospels enhanced by their diversity
    4. Unreasonableness of magnifying the alleged discrepancies of the Gospels
Progress of Doctrine and Analogy of Faith

  1. The Holy Scriptures a growth
  2. Genesis a series of evolutions and rev­elations
  3. The Mosaic legislation a new era of revelation

(1) Doctrine of God
(2) Superior ethical and civil code
(3) Pentateuch fundamental to Old Testa­ment revelation

  1. Divine revelation continued after Moses
  2. Theology of the Psalter
  3. The Solomonic proverbial philosophy
  4. Old Testament revelation reached highest spirituality in the great prophets
  5. Prophetic link between the Old and New Testaments
  6. Christ’s teaching the substance but not the finality of Christian doc­trine
  7. Revelation continued after Jesus’ as­cension
  8. The New Testament epistles contain the elaborated teaching of the apos­tles
  9. The Apocalypse a fitting conclusion of the New Testament Canon
  10. Attention to progress of doctrine a help to interpretation
    1. Progress of doctrine explains anal­ogy of faith
    2. Two degrees of analogy of faith: —(1) Positive
      (2) General
    3. Limitation and use of analogy of faith as a principle of interpretation

Doctrinal and Practical Use of Scripture

  1. Paul’s statement of the uses of Scripture
  2. Romish doctrine of authoritative in­terpretation
  3. Protestant principle of the use of rea­son
  4. Statement and defence of Scripture doctrine must accord with correct hermeneutics
  5. Biblical and historical theology dis­tinguished
  6. Human tendency to be wise above what is written
  7. True and false methods of ascertain­ing biblical doctrine: —

(1) The doctrine of God
(2) The doctrine of Vicarious Atonement
(3) The doctrine of Eternal Punishment

  1. Absence of scriptural hope for the wicked
  2. Import of Matt. 12:32 and Mark 3
  3. Preaching to the spirits in prison

(4) Doctrine, not, confined to one portion, class, or style of Scripture
(5) Eschatology taught mainly in figurative language
(6) Doctrine of the resurrection
(7) Freedom from prepossession and presump­tion
(8) Texts not to be cited ad libitum

  1. New Testament doctrine not clear without the help of the Old, and vice versa
  2. Confusion of Hebrew and Aryan modes of thought
  3. Practical and homiletical use of Scrip­ture: —

(1) Must be based on true grammatical Inter­pretation
(2) Personal experiences, promises, admoni­tions, and warnings have lessons for all time
(3) No true application of Scripture without correct Interpretation


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